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Full text of "Australian Timber Standard Sizes 2011"

Technical Advisory Brochure 



Structural 
Timber 



PRODUCTS GUIDE 




wood products victoria 



Saleable Technical Publications 



Pocket Span Table Book 

The 330 page PSTB is in an easy to carry pocket sized (A5), 
durable and spiral bound format and includes span tables 
for commonly used sawn structural timber grades as well 
as engineered LVL and I-beam floor joist tables. 

The PSTB is designed as an easy to use supplement to AS1 684.2 
(Residential timber-framed construction). 




Carports & Pergolas: 

Design and Construction Manual 

An illustrated guide dealing with the design and construction 
of timber carports and pergolas. It enables the effective 
utilisation of commonly available timber species considering 
both structural performance and durability requirements. 
It contains information for flat or skillion roofs as well as 
pitched roof structures with open or supporting sheet roof only. 




Timber Decks: 

Design and Construction Manual 

An illustrated guide to the design and construction of timber decks 
for domestic applications. Information is provided on commonly 
available framing and decking timbers in a clear, easy to read format 
with colour coded span tables. Additional detailed information such 
as footing requirements, stumps, stairs and handrails, fasteners and 
recommended timber finishes is also provided. 




Timber Service 
Life Design package 

Contains (i) Timber Service Life Design Guide addresses the predicted 
service life of timber construction subjected to: In-ground decay, 
Above ground decay, Weathering, Termites, Corrosion and/or Marine 
borers and the (ii) Timberlife (service-life prediction) software is 
intended to be used as an educational tool. It provides detailed 
estimates of service-life performance, with time, for an extensive 
range of hazards - both internal and external. 




Timber Stairs, Balustrades 
and Handrails 

A unique reference guide to the design, practices and construction 
of timber stairs, balustrades and handrails in domestic applications. 
The guide provides recommendations on timber species selection, 
member sizing, durability, finishing etc for internal as well as external 
stairs - open stairs (no risers) and closed stairs (with risers) are 
catered for. Additional design information such as the Building Code 
of Australia requirements, connection details, stair construction 
procedures as well as recommended timber finishes is also provided. 




For a listing of publication distributors visit www.wpv.org.au and click on "design manuals" and then "list of distributors" 



Structural Timber Products Guide 



Preface and Contents 



Preface 

This information has been prepared 
by Wood Products Victoria as a guide 
for designers, specifiers, builders 
and timber users in general. 

This technical resource provides 
a comprehensive guide to the range 
of timber products for available 
structural applications. If there 
is any doubt concerning availability, 
your specific suppliers should 
be consulted before completing 
design documentation, 
specification or ordering. 



Wood Products Victoria (WPV) 
supports sustainable timber 
and wood products, grown, 
harvested, processed, 
manufactured or sold within 
Victoria or by Victorian based 
businesses through informed 
research, technical publications, 
customer information, and 
product and market development. 

© Wood Products Victoria December 2009 



General Data 4 

Sawn Timber Products 6 

Softwood: Seasoned 6 

Unseasoned 6 

Treated i 

Hardwood: Seasoned 8 

Treated 8 

Unseasoned 9 

Nailplate Joined Timber Products 10 

Structural Beams 10 

Roof Trusses 10 

Parallel Chord Trusses 10 

Engineered Beam Products 11 

LVL - Laminated Veneer Lumber n 

l-Beams 12 

Box Beams 12 

Glued Laminated Timber 13 

Engineered Panel Products 14 

Plywood 14 

OSB - Oriented Strand Board 14 

Particleboard 15 

Masonite 15 

Ordering & Specification 16 

Properties of Structural Timbers 17 

Timber Certification 18 

Australian Standards 

Relevant to Timber 19 

Timber Information and Advice 20 



WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



General Data 



Sawn Timber Products 





Approx 








Density 


Stress 




Product Type Typical Species 


(kg/m 3 ) 


Grade 


Supply 










550 


F5 


Readily available 








Seasoned 
Timber 


Softwood 


Radiata Pine 




F7 


Available from selected suppliers 




510 


MGP10 


Readily available 


540 


MGP12 


Available from most suppliers 




















580 


MGP15 


Available from selected suppliers 






Various Australian 
Hardwoods 


650* 


F17 


Readily available 




Hardwood 














Alpine Ash 
Mountain Ash 


650 


A17 


Available from selected suppliers 




Douglas Fir* (Oregon) 


700* 


F5 


Limited Availability 




Cnftu/nnH 














White Cypress 


850 


F7 


Readily available 




Unseasoned 








F8 


Limited Availability 


Timber 


Various Australian 
Hardwoods 


1050* 












Hardwood 






F11 


Available from selected suppliers 






Red Gum 
(River Red Gum) 


1100* 


F7 


Available from selected suppliers 


















* Figures are approximate because ot the likely range of species and/or m 


oisture contenl 


s. 




Additional Information 








1 . Seasoned timber is supplied with a moisture content not 








exceeding 15 percent. 








2. Stress grade is a strength classification for structural timbers, 








derived by means of either a visual or mechanical grading 








in accordance with the respective Australian Standards 








(see Australian Standards Relevant to Timber on page 1 9). 









Structural Timber Products Guide 



General Data 



Engineered Beam Products 



Product Type 


Typical Species 


Brands/ 
Grades 


Approx 
Density 
(kg/m 3 ) 


Supply 




Laminated 

Veneer 

Lumber (LVL) 


Softwood 


Radiata Pine 


LVL 13.2 


550 


Available from selected suppliers 




Pinaster Pine 


LVL 14.0 


650 


Available from selected suppliers 


l-Beams 


Softwood 


Radiata Pine 
Pinaster Pine 


Refer 

manufacturer's 

span tables 


550 


Available from selected suppliers 


650 


Available from selected suppliers 


Glued 

Laminated 

Timber 


Softwood 


Slash Pine 
Radiata Pine 
White Cypress 


GL8-GL21 


550 


Available from selected suppliers 


Hardwood 


Victorian Ash 


GL8-GL21 


650 


Available from selected suppliers 













Engineered Panel Products 





Product Type 


Typical 
Components 


Approx 
Density 
(kg/m 3 )* 


Supply 






Plywood 


Softwood 


Veneer 


500 - 650 


Readily Available 




Hardwood 


Veneer can exceed 900 


Limited Availability 


Particleboard 


Softwood 


Wood Chips 610 


Readily Available 


Oriented Strand 
Board (OSB) 


Softwood 


640 - 700 
Timber Strands 


Readily Available 


Masonite 


Hardwood 


Timber Pulp Fibres 1050 


Readily Available 












* Density is approximately equivalent to the d 


ensity of the timber species f 


mm which they are n 


lanufactured. 





WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



Sawn Timber Products 



Seasoned Softwood 

Seasoned softwood is widely used in residential frame construction 
(wall frames: studs, plates, headers; floor and roof truss components) 
and other internal fit-out elements. Structural seasoned softwood 
is usually sold with a dressed surface finish (planer-gauged). It may 



also be rougher headed which is a reeded finish. Radiata Pine is also 
available as preservative treated (see page 7). Factory manufactured 
finger-jointed and metal plate connector joined products are also 
available (see page 10). 











Seasoned Softwood Size Range 












BREADTH 
(mm) 


DEPTH (mm) 




42 


70 


90 120 140 


190 


240 


290 


35 


® 


• 


• • • 


• 


® 


® 


45 




• 


• • • 


• 


• 


• 


90 


• 



• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Size stated is finished size (planer-gauged or rougher headed). Sawn 
sections are sometimes available on special order (particularly copper- 
chrome-arsenate CCA. preservative treated material). These sections 
are at least 6mm greater in width and 5mm greater in thickness than 
the size stated in the table. 



2. Lengths up to approx. 5.4 metres are normally available 
in 0.3 metre increments. 



3. Seasoned softwood is supplied at a moisture content 
not exceeding 15 percent. 




Unseasoned Softwood 



The predominant unseasoned softwood used in Australian homes is Oregon (Douglas Fir) is also typically available in breadths up to and 

White Cypress. It is a highly moisture-resistant material. The heartwood including 75mm. 
is durable with excellent termite resistance and is commonly used in 
outdoor applications. It is generally used as deck joists, beams or posts. 





Unseasoned Softwood Size Range 










BREADTH 
(mm) 


DEPTH (mm) 




75 


100 125 150 175 


200 


225 


250 


38 


• 


• • • O 


O 






50 


• 


• • • • 


O 


O 


O 


75 


• 


• • • • 


O 


O 


O 


100 


• 


• o o o 


O 


O 


O 


125 




• ® 


® 






150 


• 


200 






• 






• Commonly available sizes 


® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 











Structural Timber Products Guide 



Sawn Timber Products 



Treated Softwood 



Softwood can readily be made resistant to decay, insect and 
fungal attack, as well as have its lifetime greatly increased 
through chemical treatment. 



There are several levels of hazard treatment in the treated 
timber range. 





Hazard Level 


Exposure Specific Hazard 






H1 


Inside / Above-Ground Lyctid Borer 




H2 


Inside /Above-Ground 


Termites 


H3 


Outside /Above-Ground 


Moderate Decay 


H4 


Outside /In-Ground 


Severe Decay 













1 . Most outdoor products are classified as H3, with H4 being commonly 
used for in-ground purpose timber i.e. 90x90 posts. 

2. Whilst hazard levels range from H1 - H6, H5 and H6 are generally 
retained for specialist applications such as boat hulls and marine piles. 

CCA I 

Copper Chrome Arsenate (CCA) is pressure-applied to timber until the 
active ingredients bond with the timber's cell structure. Copper protects 
from decay, arsenic repels insect attacks and chromium is the bonding 
agent. It is recognisable by its distinctive green tinge, and while it may 
appear more expensive than untreated softwood, its increased lifespan 
makes it a worthwhile investment. Products treated with CCA are 
redried (seasoned) after treatment. 

LOSP ^^^^^^^| 

Some light organic solvent preservative (LOSP) treated material is also 
available. This treatment is only for use in above ground applications. 
Where unprotected, LOSP gives only short-term water repellency and 
dimensional stability. As a primer to which paints or stains can be 
applied it provides long-term preservative protection. The treatment 
is not normally recognisable by its colour, although a colour 
may be incorporated in the treatment process. 



3. H2-F/H2-S is termite protection treated with a long acting synthetic 
pyrethroid insecticide. It is generally identifiable by its distinctive 
blue tint and available in most pine framing sizes. 




CCA treated material presents no known hazards to humans or 
domestic animals under normal conditions of use, however, the 
following applications have been voluntarily excluded as a precaution: 
children's play equipment, garden furniture, picnic tables, external 
seating, domestic decking boards, handrails or burning. 

An alternative treatment option (ACQ) is now widely used for most 
of these applications. 




WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



Sawn Timber Products 



Seasoned Hardwood 



Australian seasoned hardwood is greatly valued in structural 
applications for its high durability and strength-to-weight ratio as well 
as its inherent beauty. Its structural applications commonly include 
high-strength floor and roof beams and joists, as well as support lintels 
over doors and window openings. Seasoned Australian hardwood is 
sourced from both plantations and sustainably managed native forests. 



Structural seasoned hardwood products are usually sold in solid form, 
however finger-jointed material for applications such as wall studs, 
plates, etc., and factory manufactured products joined with metal plate 
connectors are available from some suppliers. 











Seasoned Hardwood Size Range 












BREADTH 
(mm) 


DEPTH (mm) 




70 


90 


120 140 170 190 


220 


240 


290 


35 


• 


• 


® ® O ® 


O 


® 


O 


45 


• 


• 


• • O • 


O 


• 


• 



• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Lengths up to approx. 5.4 metres are normally available. Lengths are 
typically supplied in 0.3 metre increments. Longer lengths of finger-jointed 
or metal plate connector jointed material is available, with some restrictions 
applying to use. 

2. Size stated is 'finished' size (gauged). 

3. Seasoned hardwood is supplied at a moisture content 
not exceeding 15 percent. 



4. Unless specifically requested, structural seasoned hardwood is 
graded for strength only and not visual appearance. Some suppliers 
will provide structural grades in combination with appearance grades 
where aesthetics are important (for example exposed beams). AS2082 
provides for structural and appearance grades of seasoned hardwood 
where necessary. The respective grading requirements can be interposed. 



Treated Hardwood 



Due to the density of hardwoods, treated products are difficult 
to achieve and therefore not widely available. In recent years, 
advancements in treatment processes have enabled the treatment of 
some hardwoods to achieve a H2 level. Due to the limited availability, 
check with your local supplier prior to specification. 




Structural Timber Products Guide 



Sawn Timber Products 



Unseasoned hardwood is marketed in Australia as a timber group 
comprising a range of different species, each having similar structural 
properties. Historically, unseasoned or 'green' hardwood was 
extensively used as both framing and large structural members in 
residential housing; it has now largely been replaced by seasoned 



Unseasoned Hardwood 

softwood and hardwood. However, in rural areas, where availability is 
greater, it remains a viable option for joist and beam construction. 

It should be noted that some merchants stock only a limited range of 
sizes and lengths, however, a complete range is generally available on 
order or directly from sawmills. 











Unseasoned Hardwood Size Range 














BREADTH 
(mm) 






DEPTH (mm) 












50 


75 


100 125 150 175 


200 


225 


250 


300 


25 


• 


• 


• O • O 










38 


• 


• 


• • • • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


50 


• 


• 


• • • O 


• 


• 


• 


• 


75 




® 


• ® ® ® 


® 


® 


® 


® 



• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Size stated is 'sawn' size (rough sawn finish). I 

2. Lengths up to 6.0 metres are readily available. 
Lengths above 6.0 metres and up to 7.5 metres 
are generally obtainable in larger sizes from most 
suppliers although advance orders may be required. 



Tolerances: 

a. Size tolerance - finished width and thickness. 

For timber up to 6.0m in length and up to 
200mm in width: ± 3mm 

For timber up to 6.0m in length and 200mm 
or more in width: + 9mm, - 3mm 

For timber 6.0m and over in length: as above, increased by one-third 

For sized or gauged timber: + 2mm, - 0mm. 

b. Length tolerance - not less than the ordered dimension. 




WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



9 



Nailplate Joined Timber Products 



Structural Beams 

Structural beams of long lengths and large sizes are factory-fabricated 
from smaller framing sized timbers using toothed metal nailplates. 
These nailplate joined members are generally made from seasoned 
hardwood, although Radiata Pine sections are also manufactured. 

Long length components are manufactured by butt-jointing shorter 
sections, with lengths up to 12.0 metres possible. Larger section sizes 
are obtained by horizontally laminating small sections together. Beams 
fabricated by a combination of the two processes are also available. 

In some cases end use is limited to a specific application and therefore 
nailplate joined beams are not necessarily a substitute for solid timber. 
Some restrictions may apply to the notching and drilling of engineered 
nail-plated products. Suppliers should supply specific 
instructions. Manufacturers' span tables should be consulted 
to establish maximum beam spans before specifying. 
Nailplated products should never be used as planks. 

Roof Trusses 

Trusses connect timber in triangular units. This design allows 
a unit to span a greater length than conventional beams and 
use smaller-sized pieces. A fully engineered product, timber 
trusses are usually factory fabricated, utilising nailplates to 
connect each member. Alternative connectors such as bolts 
are available for special truss applications. 

Roof trusses are manufactured specifically to plan. Most trusses 
are fabricated from seasoned hardwoods and softwoods. Clear 
spans of up to 30 metres can be readily available. Prefabricated 
trusses may not only be more accurate and versatile, but can 
potentially use less timber than conventionally pitched roofs. 



Parallel Chord Trusses 

Parallel chord trusses have similar design functionality as 
l-Beams with a top and bottom flange, but a truss structure 
replacing the web. Parallel chord truss design advantages are 
similar to the roof trusses as they use less timber than a solid 
beam and can span a longer distance. They are widely utilised 
as floor joists and rafters due to their lightweight and the 
ability to rout services pipes and cabling through. In the past, 
one disadvantage of this truss design has been that specific 
member spans must be known in advance to allow for the 
member to be specially manufactured. This problem has been 
addressed by new products with either solid wood or OSB ends, 
allowing the floor trusses to be trimmed and adjusted on site, 
refer to manufacturer's details regarding installation. 




10 Structural Timber Products Guide 



Engineered Beam Products 



LVL - Laminated Veneered Lumber 



LVL is predominately used for residential and industrial building 
applications such as floor joists, rafters, girder beams, lintels and 
garage opening beams. 

LVL is manufactured from rotary peeled softwood veneers 
(e.g. Pinus radiata, Pinus pinaster) which are dried and glued 
together under heat and pressure. 



The grain of all veneers is oriented in the direction of the long 
dimension of the beam. The phenolic adhesive used gives a Type A 
exterior bond. Long lengths and large stable sections make the product 
ideal for domestic, commercial and industrial applications. Standard 
beam sections sizes are produced from large slabs in the factory. 













LVL Size Range 








BREADTH 


DEPTH (mm) 


(mm) 


95 


130 


150 


170 


200 


240 


300 


360 


400 


45C 


36 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 








45 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 




63 


® 


® 


® 


® 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


® 


75 






® 


O 


O 


O 


® 


O 


® 


O 



• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Greater depths are available on request to 
suit commercial and industrial applications. 

2. 90mm and 245mm depths are also available 
from some suppliers. 




3. Long lengths up to 12.0 metres are available. Lengths up to 8.4 metres 
are typically available in 0.3 metre increments and greater than 8.4 metres 
are available on order in 0.6 metre increments. Lengths over 12.0 metres 
can be sourced by special order and delays in delivery time may occur. 
Lengths are limited by transportation. 

4. H2 and H3 treated LVL is available 
from most suppliers. 




WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



11 



Engineered Beam Products 




I-Beams 

l-Beams are T shaped engineered wood structural members. 
They consist of top and bottom flanges which resist bending, 
tension and compressive stresses, these are generally solid timber 
or LVL; and a web which transfers shear forces between the flanges, 
generally structural plywood or oriented strand board (OSB). 

Because I-Beams have a high strength-to-weight ratio and are 
lightweight, they are considered an ideal floor joist and rafter choice 
for many commercial and residential applications. A major feature is 
the ability to cut holes in the web, to accommodate services, without 
compromising structural integrity (refer to the manufacturer's advice 
regarding allowable sizes and positioning of holes). 











l-Beam Size Range ^ 








FLANGE 
WIDTH (mm) 






DEPTH (mm) 




K1 


200 


240 2 


300 360 


400 




45 


• 


• 


• 






51 




® 


• 






63 




• 


• • 


® 




90 




• 


• • 


• 








• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Greater depths are available on request to suit commercial 4, 
and industrial applications. 

2. 245mm depths are also available from some suppliers. 

3. Minimum flange widths and depths shown. Flange dimensions 

may vary slightly between manufacturers this affects spanning ability - 
check with supplier. 



Long lengths up to 1 2.6 metres are available. Lengths up to 8.4 metres 
are typically available in 0.3 metre increments and greater than 8.4 metres 
are available on order in 0.6m increments. Lengths over 12.6m can be 
sourced by special order - delays in delivery time may occur. Lengths are 
limited by transportation. 

H2 treatment options are available from some suppliers. 



Box Beams 

Box beams follow similar design principles to I-beams, but in this 
instance two web members are used, fixed to the sides of the flanges. 
This allows for the member to not only have a decorative face, but 
also enables wiring to be run through the middle of the beam and 
thus achieve a neater look. Box beam structures are especially ideal in 
areas that require a long span, such as open plan buildings like sports 
arenas and warehouses, as they are lightweight and can be used as a 
decorative feature. Box beams are designed to job-specific standards 
and are typically assembled off-site. There are no standard sizes to be 
purchased 'off-the-shelf. 




12 Structural Timber Products Guide 



Engineered Beam Products 



Glued laminated (Glulam) components are fabricated by gluing together 
the horizontal faces of thin timber laminates so that the completed 
component functions as one structural unit (e.g. beams and columns). 

Most glulam is fabricated with Radiata Pine although glued laminated 
hardwood and Oregon beams are also available. The size and length 
range is virtually unlimited as manufacturing can be tailored to suit 
design requirements. 



Glued Laminated Timber 

Design of these members must be in accordance with the Australian 
Standard AS1 720.1 Timber Structures - Design methods. 

Manufacturing and quality control requirements are specified 
in AS/NZS1 328: Glued laminated Structural Timber. As there is 
no system within AS/NZS1328 to assign mechanical properties 
to Glulam, the Glued Laminated Timber Association of Australia 
(GLTAA) established a performance guide. This guide generally assigns 
grades of structural Glulam from GL8 - GL1 8 with GL21 being 
available from selected suppliers as an appearance-grade product. 















Glulam Size Range 


















BREADTH 
(mm) 










DEPTH (mm) 
















120 


150 


170 


180 


200 230 240 270 


300 


330 


360 


380 


400 


420 


65 


• 


• 


® 


• 


® • • • 


• 


• 


• 


O 


® 


• 


85 


• 


• 


® 


• 


® • • • 


• 


• 


• 


O 


® 


• 


115 


• 


• 


® 


• 


o o • • 










® 


• 



• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Glued laminated (Glulam) timber sizes can vary between manufacturers 
and grades. Many depths in the table have been simplified due 

to the extensive range of sizes available between manufacturers. 

2. Glulam is generally available in lengths of up to 12m in 0.3m 
increments, longer length available upon request. 

3. A camber may be built into a beam to reduce the overall 
deflection under load. 

4. Treatment options up to H3 may be available from some suppliers. 

5. The listed size range should only be viewed as a general guide 
to Glulam availability. By approaching a manufacturer directly and 
using specific timbers, depths up to 1 200mm may be produced. 




WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



13 



Engineered Panel Products 



Plywood 



Plywood is produced by gluing together thin layers of wood veneer with 
the grain of adjacent veneers running perpendicular to each other. 
Once the veneers have been bonded, they create one structural 
unit that can be cut to any size to serve a variety of functions - 
structural or appearance. 

As a very versatile structural product, plywood has a large 
number of applications including bracing, flooring and can 
be used as external cladding. 



Plywood is typically manufactured from softwood veneers, 
though hardwood plywood is available if higher stress 
grade of appearance products are required. 

Plywood thickness varies with manufacturer and product 
application, but typical structural panel thicknesses are: 
3,4,4.5,6,7,12,13,15,17,19,21,25 mm. 



Plywood Size Range 



WIDTH 
(mm) 




LENGTH (mm) 






1800 


2100 2400 


2700 




900 


® 


® ® 


® 




1200 


® 


® • 


• 








Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Lengths of 2440mm and 2745mm may be available for wall bracing to 
preserve 2.4m and 2.7m floor to ceiling height respectively. 



2. Plywood may be CCA treated or available in Marine Ply. Marine Ply 
is a very high quality product with a higher strength rating and is 
specifically designed for boat hulls and other nautical applications. 






OSB - Oriented Strand Board 



Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is manufactured using timber (softwood) 
wafers that are oriented in one direction as they are combined. 
While most wafers are oriented in the long direction, a proportion 
are orientated at random angles. The thin rectangular wooden 
strips are compressed and bonded together with wax and resin 



adhesives. While OSB has similar properties to plywood, 
unlike plywood, it does not have a veneer finish and is not 
an appearance grade product as the wafers give the face 
a mottled appearance. Its applications are similar to plywood 
and it is generally used for cladding and bracing. 





OSB Size Range 






WIDTH 
(mm) 


LENGTH (mm) 
2440 2745 3050 




900 


® ® ® 


1200 


• • ® 




• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . OSB generally comes in thicknesses of 9.5mm to 1 8.5mm. 





14 Structural Timber Products Guide 



Engineered Panel Products 



Particleboard (otherwise known as chipboard) is manufactured 
from similar sized wood particles (or chips) hot-pressed together with 
a resin to create a large board which is then cut into required panels. 
Particleboards can be manufactured with a number of different finishes 
such as: raw sanded, wood veneer, vinyl or melamine white papers. 



Particleboard 

It is a high quality and price-effective panelling product, but can 
be prone to swelling and should not be used for exterior applications. 
Moisture resistant (MR) particleboard may be available for use in areas 
of high humidity and occasional wetness, such as bathrooms. 



FLOORING 

Large tongue-and-groove particleboard sheets are available 
for flooring applications. They are specially made with moisture- 
resistant synthetic resin with wax-sealed edges to allow for limited 
weather exposure (contact manufacturer for specific tolerances). 



Particleboard flooring is used widely as a structural flooring substrate 
to form a platform for finishing overlays (carpet/vinyl). Different flooring 
particleboard products are available in this range, and are identified 
by the colour-coded wax (and tongue) around the edge. 



Wax and Tongue Colour 


Size (mm) Thickness (mm) 






Yellow/Green 


3600 x 900 


19 




Red/Beige 


3600 x 900 


22 


Blue 


3600 x 600 


25 












1 . Although particleboard flooring is gt 
exposure, it should be kept off the c 
installation to avoid swelling and ga 


Bnerally treated for limited water 
iround and covered prior to 
ps upon installation. 


2. Particleboard flooring can be treated to H2 for termite resistance. 



The Mason Method of producing hardboards involves taking hardwood 
sawmill residue and forest thinnings and blasting them into long 
fibres with steam and then forming them into boards using their 
naturally occurring wood glues to bind them together to form a board. 



Masonite 

Masonite is considered environmentally friendly, as it does not contain 
synthetic glues or resins. The boards are highly flexible and have a 
smooth finish on one side. Masonite has a number of applications 
such as a flooring underlay and for wall bracing. 



Masonite Size Range 



WIDTH 




LENGTH (mm) 




(mm) 


2440 


2745 


3050 


460 


• 


• 


® 


610 


® 


® 


® 


900 


• 


• 


® 


1200 


• 


• 


® 


1350 


® 


® 


® 



• Commonly available sizes ® Available by order o Sizes in limited supply 

1 . Widths of 91 5mm and 1 220mm may also be available 
from some suppliers. 



2. Available thicknesses are 4.8mm and 6.4mm. 



WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



15 



Ordering and Specification 



There are three aspects 
to specifying timber 

1 Timber Type 

The first step is deciding the right timber type 
(hardwood, softwood) and timber grade (F17, MGP10) 
for the specific application. Full information on sizes 
and lengths available are listed in the relevant tables. 



2 Timber Size 

The unit of measure for size, or cross-section, 
is millimetres (mm). 

Cross-section measurements are specified using 
the greatest dimension first, for example: 90 x 45, 
not 45 x 90. The size ranges are indicated in the 
relevant tables and can vary greatly from product 
to product. 



Ordering 



Structural timber should be specified by timber group, stress grade and 
size. Example: 



F1 7 1 90 x 45 seasoned hardwood 
MGP1 90x35 seasoned pine 

The number of pieces required per length must also be given - 
10/2.4 indicates 10 pieces at each 2.4m in length. 

The correct lengths should be ordered for a specific application. 
For example, the practice for ordering studs in 4.8 m lengths and 
site docking to produce 2.4m studs is discouraged as it involves 
higher production costs and could cause problems with a large 
number of pieces in a frame being left unbranded. 

Some merchants may use the phrase 'Kiln Dried' (KD) interchangeably 
with 'seasoned' ie: F17 190 x 45 KD hardwood. 



3 Timber Length 

The unit of measure for timber length is metres (m). 

Timber is normally sold in standard lengths, 
beginning at 1 .8 metres and increasing in 0.3m 
increments (i.e. 2.1 , 2.4 up to 5.7 and 6.0, 
and in some cases above). Lengths may differ 
in availability depending on timber size, specification 
and location. Check the relevant table and notes. 



Additional Information 

Actual board size and length may differ slightly from the dimensions 
stated. Under Australian Standards there are certain millimetre amounts 
to which board size can differ, yet still be considered acceptable - this 
is called 'Tolerance'. 

Tolerances: 

a) Size Tolerance 

Visual grading (F - Grades) 

Dressed products (gauged): + 2mm, - Omm with variation 
in size within a piece or a parcel not exceeding 2mm. 

Cypress pine products: + 3mm, - Omm with variation 
in size within a piece or a parcel not exceeding 2mm. 

Sawn Products: + 5mm, - Omm with variation 
in size within a piece not exceeding 2mm. 

Machine grading: (MGP - Grade) + 2mm, - Omm. 

Engineered Wood Products: Refer Manufacturer's Information. 

b) Length Tolerance - not less than the specified dimension. 



16 Structural Timber Products Guide 



Properties of Structural Timber 



Species 


Density 
kg/m 3 


Natural Durability 
Class of Heartwood 


Strength 
group 


Lyctid 
Susceptibility 






At 12% 
moisture 
content 


In Ground ( 
Contact 


Dutside Above 
Ground 


Unseas. 


Seas. 






Ash, Alpine 


650 


4 


3 


S4 


SD4 


s 


Ash, Mountain 


650 


4 


3 


S4 


SD3 


NS 


Ash, Silvertop 


850 


3 


2 


S3 


SD3 


NS 


Box, Brush 


900 


3 


3 


S3 


SD3 


NS 


Box, Grey 


1100 


1 


1 


S2 


SD2 


S 


Cypress, White 


700 


2 


1 


S5 


SD6 


NS 


Fir, Douglas 


550 


4 


4 


S5/S6 


SD5/SD6 


NS 


Gum, Blue, Southern 


950 


3 


2 


S3 


SD2 


S 


Gum, Grey, Mountain 


850 


3 


2 


S3 


SD2 


S 


Gum, Manna 


750 


4 


3 


S4 


SD4 


S 


Gum, Red River 


900 


2 


1 


S5 


SD5 


S 


Gum, Shining 


650 


4 


3 


S4 


SD4 


S 


Gum, Spotted 


1000 


2 


1 


S2 


SD2 


S 


Hemlock, Western 


500 


4 


4 


S6 


SD6 


NS 


Ironbark, Red 


1050 


1 


1 


S2 


SD3 


S 


Jarrah 


800 


2 


2 


S4 


SD4 


S 


Kwilla (Merbau) 


850 


3 


1 


S2 


SD3 


S 


Mahogany, Southern 


900 


3 


2 


S2 


SD3 


NS 


Messmate 


750 


3 


3 


S3 


SD3 


S 


Pine, Radiata 


550 


4 


4 


S6 


SD6 


NS 


Stringybark, Brown 


850 


3 


2 


S3 


SD3 


NS 


Stringybark, Red 


900 


3 


2 


S3 


SD4 


S 


Stringybark, White 


850 


3-2 


2 


S3 


SD3 


NS 


Stringybark, Yellow 


900 


3 


2 


S3 


SD3 


NS 


Tallowwood 


1000 


1 


1 


S2 


SD2 


S 




Probable Li 










Natural Durability - 


fe Expectancy 


Strenc 


gth Groups 




Class 


In - Ground 
(Years) 


Above - Ground 
(Years) 


Timber is classified into strengtn groups Daseo on its 
mechanical properties. The groups are (in descending order) 
S1 -S7 for unseasoned and SD1 -SD8 for seasoned timber. 

Lyctid Susceptibility 
(Susceptibility to attack by Lyctid borer) 

S - Susceptible 

NS - Not susceptible 


1 


25+ 


40+ 


2 


15-25 


15-40 


3 


5-15 


7-15 


4 


0-5 


0-7 















WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



17 



Timber Certification 



Increasingly around the world, companies, 
governments and consumers are seeking assurances 
that the timber products they purchase are sourced 
from legally and sustainably managed forests. 
Third party timber certification provides an 
independent means of providing this assurance. 

Timber certification involves both forest 
certification and chain of custody certification. 

Forest Certification 

is the voluntary process by which planning, procedures, systems and 
performance forestry operations are audited by an independent third 
party against a predetermined standard. Forest operations found to 
be in conformance with the given standard are issued a certificate 
[hence certification]. 

Chain-of-Custody Certification 

provides a system to track a specific wood product from an exact 
source of certification through the processing and marketing 
channels to the final user. 

Certification is much more than a self-justified marketing claim. 
Rigorous, independent assessment by third-party auditors must be 
carried out before organisations can claim certified products. 



Timber certification is 
available in Australia 
through two schemes: 

The Australian Forest Certification Scheme (AFCS) 
www. forestrystandard. org.au 

Australian Forestry Standard Ltd is a not-for-profit public company 
registered in July 2003. The company manages the elements of 
the Australian Forest Certification Scheme. The scheme utilises the 
Australian Forestry Standard (AS4708) which has been developed 
utilising the formal Australian Standards process and designed to 
suit Australian forests, legal systems and community expectations. 
It is based on internationally recognised frameworks, such as 
ISO 14000 environmental management standards and criteria 
of the 'Montreal Process' for sustainable forest management. 
While the AFS is specifically an Australian Standard, it has been 
given international standing through its mutual recognition by the 
Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes 
(PEFC). In Australia, AFCS certifies over 8.7 million ha of Australian 
native forests and plantations. 

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) 
www. fscaustralia. org 

The Forest Stewardship Council is an independent, non-government, 
not-for-profit organisation established in 1993 to promote the 
responsible management of the world's forests. FSC is a certification 
system that provides standard-setting, trademark assurance 
and accreditation services to companies, organizations, and 
communities. FSC utilises 10 international principles adapted as per 
the country of implementation. In Australia two FSC based schemes 
are available (Woodmark and Smartwood ) which utilise 'interim 
standards' based on FSC principles & criteria; FSC Australia is 
currently working on a specific Australian FSC Standard. In Australia, 
FSC certifies over 500 thousand ha of Australian plantations. 



Market Availability of 
Certified Structural Products 

Most Australian forests growers have now implemented forest 
certification to either AFCS or FSC. A wide range of companies 
along the supply chain are also now implementing chain of custody 
certification and hence the volume of certified branded structural 
timber is steadily increasing. If you require certified timber, look for the 
AFCS or FSC brand on the product or contact the above organisations 
for a list of accredited suppliers. 



18 Structural Timber Products Guide 



Australian Standards Relevant to Timber 











General 






AS/NZS 


1148 


Timber- Nomenclature - 
Australia, New Zealand 
and imported species 




AS 


2796 


Timber- Hardwood - 
Sawn and milled products 


AS 


1577 


Scaffold Planks 




AS/NZS 


4491 


Timber - Glossary of terms 


AS 


1810 


Timber -Seasoned 








in timber related Standards 






cypress pine - Milled products 


AS 


4785 


Timber- Softwood - 














Sawn and milled products 


Stress grading 


AS 


1613 


Colours for marking F-grades 


AS 


2858 


Timber -Softwood - 


AS/NZS 


1748 


Timber - Mechanically stress- 
graded for structural purposes 






Visually stress- graded 
for structural purposes 










AS 


3519 


Timber - Machine proof grading 


AS 


2082 


Timber- Hardwood - 
Visually stress-graded 
for structural purposes 




AS/NZS 


4063 


Timber - Stress-graded - 
In-grade strength and 
stiffness evaluation 


Design 


AS/NZS 


1170 


Structural Design Actions 




AS 


2870 


Residential slabs and 


AS 


1684 


Residential timber- 
framed construction 








footing - timber members 


AS 


1720 


Timber structures 




AS 


4055 


Wind loads for housing 


Preservatives and treatment 


AS 


1604 


Specifications for 
preservative treatment 




AS/NZS 


1605 


Methods for sampling and 
analysing timber preservatives 
and preservative-treated timber 


Engineered wood products 


AS/NZS 


1328 


Glued laminated 
structural timber 




AS/NZS 


4357 


Structural laminated 
veneer lumber 


AS/NZS 


1860 


Particleboard flooring 




AS 


4440 


Installation of nailplated 
timber roof trusses 


AS/NZS 


2269 


Plywood - Structural 




AS 


5068 


Timber -Finger joints 
in structural products - 
Production requirements 


Miscellaneous 


AS/NZS 


2878 


Timber -Classification 
into strength groups 




AS 
AS 


3660.1 
5604 


Termite management - 
New building work 

Timber- Natural durability ratings 



WOOD PRODUCTS VICTORIA 



19 



Timber Information and Advice 



Authoritative advice 
on timber related 
subjects is available: 

Pine Line 

(Toll Free) 1800 007 463 

Timber Merchants 
Association Advisory Service 
(03)9875 5010 

Or visit: 

Timber Advice and Display Centre 

Ground Floor 
180Whitehorse Road, 
Blackburn, Victoria 



Useful Websites 

timber.org.au 

National Timber Industry Website (supported by FWPA) 

This site is packed with an enormous amount ot timber 
related information on a wide range of topics, most of it 
available in a downloadable pdf format - refer to the 
'site map' to get a feel for all the information available. 



A3P- Australian Plantation 
Products and Paper Industry Council 
a3p.asn.au 

Australian Hardwood Network 
australianhardwood.net 

Australian Timber Flooring Association 
atfa.com.au 

Australian Timber Importers Association 
atif.asn.au 

Australian Wood Panels Association 
woodpanels.org.au 

Engineered Wood Products Association of Australasia 
paa.asn.au 

Forest and Wood Products Australia 
fwpa.com.au 

Frame & Truss Manufacturers Association Australia 
ftmaaustralia.com.au 

Glued Laminated Timber Association of Australia 
gltaa.com 

National Association of Forest Industries 
nafi.com.au 

The Australian Timber Database 
timber.net.au 

Timber Building in Australia 
oak.arch.utas.edu.au 

Timber Merchants Association /Timber Advisory Centre 
timber.asn.au 

Victorian Association of Forest Industries 
vafi.org.au 

Wood Products Victoria Ltd 
wpv.org.au 



Wood Products Victoria Ltd. 

a founding member of 




m©;©:B>7couNciL 

Australia 



20 Structural Timber Products Guide